At the time of collaboration, Rafael Chavez-Avila was Senior professor at the University of Valencia. He has been Director of the IUDESCOOP Research Institute and of the Master's Degree in Social Economy at this university, where he is Director of the Doctorate Programme in Social Economy. He has been president of the Social and Cooperative Economy Scientific Committee of CIRIEC-international for twelve years. His research has focused on public policies, theories and statistics on the social economy. He is the editor of Ciriec-España, journal of public, social and cooperative economics. He was member of the group of experts that produced the Report for the Spanish Government for the Social Economy Law of this country. He has carried out studies and reports for European institutions such as the European Economic and Social Committee and the European Commission. He is currently a member of the Expert Group on Social Economy and Social Enterprises of the European Commission (2018-2024) and President of the Scientific Commission of CIRIEC-Spain.