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Back | Programme Area: Research-Related Activities | Event: Building Livelihoods & Promoting Rights? The Graduation Approach to Social Protection


Building Livelihoods & Promoting Rights? The Graduation Approach to Social Protection


Further Reading


1. Browne, Evie. 2013. “Post-Graduation from Social Protection.” GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1035, Birmingham: GSDRC, University of Birmingham. http://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/HDQ1035.pdf.

This Helpdesk Research Report reviews evidence-based literature on social protection programmes that aim to sustainably lift beneficiaries out of poverty, and assesses the successes and failures of such programs in Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Ethiopia and Brazil.

2. El-Zoghbi, Mayada, Aude de Montesquiou, and Syed Hashemi. 2009. “Creating Pathways for the Poorest: Early Lessons on Implementing the Graduation Model.” https://www.wdronline.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9485.

A brief on the key features of the graduation model (as developed by BRAC) and its adaptations being implemented by CGAP and the Ford Foundation in several countries.

3. Huda, Karishma. 2012. “Graduating Into – Not Out of – a National Social Security System.” Pathways Perspectives, 5: 1–5.

A paper that defends the implementation of human-rights based social protection systems, as opposed to the adoption of programmes with a graduation approach, to achieve sustainable livelihoods for beneficiaries.

4. Kidd, Stephen. 2013. “The Misuse of the Term ‘Graduation’ in Social Policy.” Pathways Perspectives 14. http://www.developmentpathways.co.uk/resources/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/14-PathwaysPerspectives-Misuse-of-graduation-pathways-perspectives-14.pdf.

The author of this brief argues that the graduation approach is “poor social policy” because it aims to move income-insecure individuals out of national social security systems when such systems exist to effectively engage these individuals in the labour market.

5. Kim, Sung Kyu, and James Sumberg. 2014. “Assets, Asset-Ness and Graduation.” http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Graduationconferencepaper-KimandSumberg.pdf.

The paper discusses graduation theory; namely the concept of graduation, the role of assets, its features and different types.

6. Montesquiou, Aude de, Tony Sheldon, Frank Degiovanni, and Syed M. Hashemi. 2014. “From Extreme Poverty to Sustainable Livelihoods: A Technical Guide to the Graduation Approach.” CGAP.

This is a practical guide for the adoption of the graduation model. It clarifies concepts and introduces the steps, as well as the challenges for planning, implementing and monitoring graduation programmes.

7. Pain, Chris, Emilie Vautravers, and Alain Descieux. 2015. “Sustaining Graduation: A Review of the CLM Program in Haiti.” IDS Bulletin, 46 (2): 74–82.

This paper, based on evidence from a Haitian graduation programme, highlights the importance of permanent and universal safety net-type schemes in national social protection systems, in case beneficiaries fall back into poverty after graduating.

8. Sabates, Ricardo, and Stephen Devereux. 2014. “Evidence on Graduation in Practice: Concern Worldwide’s Graduation Programme in Rwanda.” https://blds.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Graduationconferencepaper-SabatesandDevereux.pdf.

This paper is a qualitative analysis of the impact of a graduation programme in Rwanda. The authors highlight the beneficiaries’ overall positive outcomes after programme participation, attributing many of these benefits to cash transfers and their role in poverty alleviation.

9. Samson, Michael. 2015. “Exit or Developmental Impact? The Role of ‘Graduation’ in Social Protection Programmes.” IDS Bulletin, 46(2): 13–24. doi:10.1111/1759-5436.12125.

This paper argues that well-designed graduation programmes present great developmental impact and have a specific role in social protection systems. They should include various approaches and build on evidence from others’ previous experiences in order to produce and maximize inclusive economic growth.