Section Two: Transformative Social Policy and Poverty Reduction
Section two will comprise the following four chapters.
5. Social protection
The chapter examines the relationship between social protection, inequality and poverty across different welfare regimes and development contexts. It looks into the impact of social protection schemes on security and well-being of the population, the productive system, distribution and gender equality. It analyzes historical determinants of present schemes as well as the effects of recent reform trends. This chapter draws on the comparative cases studies in this project, past work on "Social Policy in a Development Context" and the following commissioned papers:
6. Universal provision of social services
- Armando Barrientos (University of Manchester, UK) – Social Protection and Poverty.
- Guy Standing (University of Bath, UK) – Labour market policies, social development and poverty reduction.
- Rachel Slater (Overseas Development Institute, UK) – Cash transfers, social protection and poverty reduction.
The chapter examines the different arrangements of service provision ranging from public provision, community driven provision, NGOs, and private sector provision and the impact on the poor. It does so by contextualizing the general debate on liberalisation, public sector reform and the progressive disengagement of the state. It links the general context of liberalization and privatization with the provision of social services within the poverty and MDGs debate. The chapter also looks at the concept of "pro-poor social services", the implications of GATS on social services, and social service provision in high growth economies.
7. Care regimes
- Parashar Kulkarni (Centre for Trade and Development, India) – GATS and social services.
- Nicola Hypher (UNRISD) – Pro-poor spending in social services.
- Paresh Narayan (Deakin University, Australia) – Social Services in High-Growth Countries.
Welfare regimes, which include social protection and services, are gendered, affecting the life chances of women and men differently. This chapter will show the linkages between care and poverty (defined here in income terms) through three different, though inter-related, channels: a) responsibilities for the provision of unpaid care (for the young, the ill and the elderly) often limit the kind of paid work that the carer can undertake to jobs with low pay and few social protection mechanisms; b) many families and individuals needing care suffer from poverty due to the costs associated with purchasing care; c) paid forms of care work are also very often associated with poverty (they include a cluster of occupations with low-status and low pay). This chapter will draw heavily on the UNRISD project on "The Political and Social Economy of Care", as well as the following commissioned papers:
8. Financing social policy
- Michelle Budig and Joya Misra (University of Massachusetts, US) – Wage penalties associated with care work employment: A cross-national analysis.
- Debbie Budlender (Community Agency for Social Enquiry, South Africa) – Time use surveys: the links between unpaid care, paid work and poverty.
- Nancy Folbre and Jayoung Yoon (University of Massachusetts, US) – Economic Development and Care Time.
This chapter will examine the ways different countries have funded their social services and welfare systems, and potential for increasing resources for universal social policies in developing countries. The chapter will rely on findings from the new UNRISD project "Financing Social Policy", which examines the social and economic implications of different revenue sources like taxation, social insurance contributions, pension funds, mineral rents, remittances and aid. It analyzes the challenges and opportunities they pose in terms of economic and social policy, and democratization. Additional papers include:
- Ian Gough (University of Bath, UK) – Financing the Welfare State.
- Cristina Bloj (National University of Rosario, Argentina) – From Resources to Outcomes: Financing social policy and the budget process.
- Jonathan di John (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK) – Fiscal Reforms, Developmental State Capacity and Poverty Reduction.