The project sought to find ways of minimizing the trade-off between environmental protection and human welfare which characterizes many environmental programmes and projects. It examined how social and political factors influence the design and implementation of environmental protection programmes in selected developing countries and the social impact of such schemes. It particularly considered how different interests shape, facilitate or obstruct the process of design and implementation, how environmental schemes affect the livelihood of different social groups at the local level, and how they in turn respond when their interests are affected.
Research carried out in Costa Rica, the Philippines and Senegal examined the potential and limitations of implementing environmental protection schemes that balance environmental and social objectives.
Funding was received from a grant by the Swiss government and the Swiss National Science Foundation. In Costa Rica: Escuela de Planificación y Promoción Social, Universidad Nacional (UNA). In the Philippines: Institute of Environmental Science and Management (IESAM), University of the Philippines, Los Baños. In Senegal: Ecole Nationale d'Economie Appliquée (ENEA) and Institut Universitaire d'Etudes du Développement (IUED), Geneva.